TOKU-E Supporting Coronavirus COVID-19 Research

As a global manufacturer of antimicrobials, we are here to help with your COVID-19 research efforts. We are committed to providing researchers and manufacturers with the necessary antimicrobial agents used in SARS-CoV-2 research and vaccine development.

Virus propagation in cell culture

Antibiotics used in virology research protect the virus from infection by bacteria and fungi without interfering in its growth.  Examples include Gentamicin Sulfate (G007) , Kanamycin Sulfate (K007), Amphotericin B (A008) and MycoRid™ (M093).

Antiviral screening

Chloroquine Phosphate (C142) is an anti-malarial compound that has shown some activity against SARS-CoV-2 in clinical trials in China. It can promote a virus-negative conversion and shorten the course of the disease. It has potential broad-spectrum antiviral activity by increasing endosomal pH. Since a low pH is required for the virus/cell fusion, by increasing the pH this can prevent virus replication. It can also interfere with the glycosylation of cellular receptors of SARS-CoV.

TOKU-E has the most comprehensive list of antiviral compounds and antiparasitic compounds which may have activity against COVID-19 (See Tables below).  Please contact us if you are conducting compound screening, and we can work in collaboration.

Cell culture

A)   Antibody testing and development

Antibody production is facilitated by recombinant E. coli, and Amphotericin B and  MycoRid can be used to minimize contamination during culture.

B)   Research on viral attachment and propagation

Cell lines used to study SARS CoV viral attachment and propagation include Vero variants, Huh-7D 12 and Caco-2.

By using our Cell Line database,  you can easily review the antibiotics used in culturing these cell lines.

Vero variants

  • G418

Huh-7D

  • G418
  • Blasticidin

 Caco-2

  • G418
  • Ampicillin
  • Neomycin
  • Hygromycin B

 

Vaccine Development

TOKU-E Bacitracin, CulturePure (B014) can be used for vaccine development using tobacco cells. It can protect the cells and contribute to increased antibody yields. The advantages of a tobacco-produced vaccine are that it will not contain protein from mammalian cells which will alleviate the side effects such that it could be taken orally. Bacitracin, CulturePure is the only compound that performs in this application that is commercially available.  Another useful compound is Vancomycin Sulfate (V010). It can be used Tobacco and sf9 (insect cells) which would also be safe for vaccine production. Kanamycin Sulfate (K008) and Gentamicin (G007) are also used in growth of CHO and Sf9 cell lines.

CulturePure® Products

TOKU-E CulturePure products have been purified to remove toxic impurities, resulting in products that are safer for cell culture applications.

 

References

Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X (2020) Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci. Trends doi 10.5582. ePub PMID 32074550

Hoffmann M (2020) SARS-CoV-2 Cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. Doi 10.1016. in press.

Letko M et al (2020) Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses. Nat. Microbiol. 5:562-569

Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G and Cauda R (2003) Effects of Chloroquine on viral infections: An old drug against today's diseases? Lancet Infect. Dis. 3(11):722-727 PMID 14592603

Takeyama N, Kiyono H and Yuki Y (2015)  Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: Recent advances in technology and clinical trials. Ther.  Adv.  Vaccines 3(5-6),:139–154

Vaughn JL, Goodwin RH, Tompkins GJ, McCawley P (1977). The establishment of two cell lines from the insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)". In Vitro. 13 (4): 213–217. PMID 68913

 

Antiviral Compounds from TOKU-E

 

Item #

Antiviral Compound

CAS Number

A090

Acyclovir

59277-89-3

A091

Adenine 9-β-D-arabinofuranoside

5536-17-4

A101

Antimycin A2 

27220-57-1

A102

Antimycin A3

522-70-3

A103

Aphidicolin 

38966-21-1

A105

Ascochlorin 

26166-39-2

A106

Apigenin from Apium graveolens

520-36-5  

A107

Apigenin from Matricaria recutita

520-36-5  

A105

Ascochlorin

26166-39-2

A108

Asunaprevir

630420-16-5

A122

Anguinomycin A

111278-01-4

A127

Antimycin A1 

642-15-9

A128

Antimycin A4

27220-59-3

A129

Antimycin A

1397-94-0

B037

Bakuchiol 

10309-37-2

C151

Cerulenin

17397-89-6

C153

Chrysomycin A

82196-88-1

C155

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester

104594-70-9  

C158

Chicoric Acid

6537-80-0

C165

Cercosporin

35082-49-6

C175

Cinnamycin

110655-58-8

C178

Citromycetin

478-60-4

C179

Cochlioquinone A

32450-25-2

C180

Cochlioquinone B

32450-26-3

C191

Cyclopenin

19553-26-5

C202

Cidofovir dihydrate

113852-37-2

C213

2’-C-Methylcytidine

20724-73-6

C214

Cecropin P1, porcine

125667-96-1

C215

1-Cycolohexyl-3-(1,3-thiazole-2-yl)thiourea

21545-54-0

D063

Doxorubicin

23214-92-8

E053

Equisetin

57749-43-6

E064

Emodin

 518-82-1

E030

Entecavir

142217-69-4

F038

Formononetin

485-72-3

E040

Enopeptin A

139601-96-0

E044

Epiequisetin

255377-45-8

E065

Epigallocatechin gallate

989-51-5 

F020

Filipin 

11078-21-0

F021

Filipin III

480-49-9

F024

Feglymycin

209335-49-9

F026

Filipin II

38620-77-8

F029

Fumagillin

23110-15-8

F038

Formononetin

485-72-3 

G002

Ganciclovir

82410-32-0

G055

Germacrone

6902-91-6

G056

Gilvocarcin V

77879-90-4

G061

Germacrone

6902-91-6

H028

Hemipyocyanine

528-71-2

H030

Herbimycin C

70563-58-5

H034

Honokiol

35354-74-6

I022

Integracin A

224186-03-2

I023

Integracin B

224186-05-4

I032

Icariin

489-32-7  

I036

Ingenol-3-mebutate

75567-37-2

I038

Isoxanthohumol

521-48-2

L030

Leucinostatin A

76600-38-9

L039

LL Z1640-4

66018-41-5

L041

Luzopeptin A

75580-37-9

L045

Lignosulfonic acid sodium salt

8061-51-6

L046

LL-37 (human) trifluoroacetate salt

597562-32-8

M054

O-Methylviridicatin

6152-51-4

M067

Monensin A

17090-79-8

M075

Matrine

519-02-8

M076

α-Mangostin

1551491

M077

γ-Mangostin

31271-07-5

M081

Melittin

20449-79-0

N030

Narasin

55134-13-9

N039

Nigericin

28380-24-7

N043

Nybomycin

30408-30-1

O031

Oxymatrine

16837-52-8

O034

Oxysophocarpine

26904-64-3

O041

Oseltamivir Phosphate

204255-11-8

P104

PGLa

102068-15-5

P119

Plumieride

511-89-7

P121

Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)–Iodine complex

25655-41-8

Q007

Quinomycin A

512-64-1

R018

Ribavirin

36791-04-5

R003

Rifampicin

13292-46-1

R026

Resistomycin

20004-62-0

R036

Rugulosin

21884-45-7

S071

Streptonigrin

3930-19-6

T006

Thimerosal 

54-64-8

T064

Tubercidin

69-33-0

T066

TAN 1364B 

154639-24-4

T067

TAN 420C

91700-91-3

T081

Terphenyllin

52452-60-5

T094

Toxoflavin

84-82-2

T104

Tunicamycin 

11089-65-9

T127

Tizoxanide

173903-47-4

V015

Valinomycin

2001-95-8

V020

Violacein

548-54-9

 

Antiparasitic Compounds from TOKU-E

 

Item #

Antiviral Compound

CAS Number

A063

Avermectin B1a

65195-55-3

A085

Amodiaquine Hydrochloride

6398-98-7

A092

Albendazole

54965-21-8

A096

Artesunate

88495-63-0

A098

Artemisinin

63968-64-9

A099

Atovaquone

95233-18-4

A100

Antimony potassium tartrate trihydrate

 28300-74-5 

A101

Antimycin A2

27220-57-1

A102

Antimycin A3

522-70-3

A103

Aphidicolin

38966-21-1

A104

Apicidin

183506-66-3

A121

Albofungin

37895-35-5

A123

Anhydroepiophiobolin A

90411-20-4

A124

Anhydroophiobolin A

6026-65-9

A128

Antimycin A4

27220-59-3

A129

Antimycin

1397-94-0

A135

Aureothricin

574-95-8

A137

Avermectin B1A Aglycone

71828-14-3

A138

Avermectin B1A Monosaccharide

71831-09-9

A139

Avermectin B1b

65195-56-4

A151

Delta 2-Avermectin B1a

N/A

A152

epi-Avermectin B1a

106434-14-4

B035

Bithionol

97-18-7

B038

Bafilomycin A1

88899-55-2

B039

Bafilomycin B1

88899-56-3

B041

Borrelidin

7184-60-3

B042

Bafilomycin C1

88979-61-7

B043

Bafilomycin D

98813-13-9

B044

Bassianolide

64763-82-2

B045

Beauvericin

26048-05-5

B054

Brevicompanine B

215121-47-4

C142

Chloroquine Phosphate

50-63-5

C159

Caerulomycin

21802-37-9

C180

Cochlioquinone B

32450-26-3

C183

Concanamycin B

81552-33-2

C193

Cytochalasin A 

14110-64-6

C194

Cytochalasin B

14930-96-2

C196

Cytochalasin D

22144-77-0

C197

Cytochalisin E

36011-19-5

C198

Cytochalasin H

53760-19-3

C199

Cytochalasin J

56144-22-0

C205

Cecropin A

80451-04-3

C206

Cecropin B

80451-05-4

D031

Demeclocycline

127-33-3

D032

Demeclocycline hydrochloride

64-73-3

D040

Dehydrocurvularin

1095588-70-7

D046

Derquantel

187865-22-1

D050

Diacetylcercosporin

62574-06-5

D053

Dihydrocyclosporin A 

59865-15-5

D055

Dihydrospinosyn A aglycone

727695-12-7

D058

Doramectin

117704-25-3

D059

Doramectin aglycone

1987883-26-0

D060

Doramectin monosaccharide

165108-44-1

D061

Delta-2-Doramectin

N/A

D062

Epi-Doramectin 

1987882-62-1

D064

Doxycycline hydrate 

17086-28-1

D065

Doxycycline Hydrochloride

10592-13-9

D066

Drimentine A

204398-90-3

D067

Drimentine B

204398-91-4

D068

Drimentine C

204398-92-5

D073

Dichlorophen

97-23-4

D079

Diethylcarbamazine citrate salt

1642-54-2

E032

Elaiophylin

37318-06-2

E033

Emamectin B1a

121124-29-6

E035

Enniatin A

2503-13-1

E036

Enniatin A1

4530-21-6

E037

Enniatin B

917-13-5

E038

Enniatin B1

19914-20-6

E039

Enniatin

11113-62-5

E043

Epi-Avermectin B1a

106434-14-4

E050

Eprinomectin

123997-26-2

E051

Eprinomectin B1a

133305-88-1

E064

Emodin

518-82-1

E065

Epigallocatechin gallate

989-51-5

F029

Fumagillin

23110-15-8

F035

Fipronil

120068-37-3

F040

Flubendazol

31430-15-6

F042

Fenbendazole

43210-67-9

H032

21-Hydroxyoligomycin A

102042-09-1

I008

Ivermectin

70288-86-7

I018

Ikarugamycin

36531-78-9

I025

Ivermectin B1a

70161-11-4

I041

epi-Ivermectin B1a

N/A

K024

Kijanimicin

78798-08-0

L014

Lincomycin

154-21-2

L025

Lasalocid

25999-31-9

L039

LL Z1640-4 

66018-41-5

M015

Milbemycin Oxime

129496-10-2

M046

Maduramicin

79356-08-4

M049

Meclocycline

2013-58-3

M047

Maduramicin Ammonium

84878-61-5

M051

Methacycline

914-00-1

M062

Minocycline

10118-90-8

M067

Monensin A 

17090-79-8

M070

Moxidectin

113507-06-5

M076

α-Mangostin

1551491

M082

Mebendazole

31431-39-7

M083

Monensin Sodium Salt

22373-78-0

M084

Morantel (+)-tartrate salt

26155-31-7

M085

Miltefosine 

58066-85-6  

M086

Morantel citrate salt

69525-81-1

N035

Nemadectin

102130-84-7

N044

Nystatin A1

1400-61-9

N048

Niclosamide anhydrous

50-65-7

N049

Nicarbazin

330-95-0

N051

Niclosamide Monohydrate

73360-56-2

N052

Nitazoxanide

55981-09-4

O019

Oligomycin C

11052-72-5

O020

Oligomycin D

1404-59-7

O021

Oligomycin E

110231-34-0

O022

Ophiobolin A

990299

O033

Oxantel pamoate

68813-55-8

P081

Piericidin A

2738-64-9

P094

Prodigiosin

82-89-3

P097

Puromycin

53-79-2

P099

Pyrenophorol 

22248-41-5

P101

Pyrocoll

484-73-1

P102

Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid

634-97-9

P113

Pentamidin

100-33-4

P114

Pentamidine Isethionate Salt

140-64-7

P119

Plumieride

511-89-7

P127

Pyrantel citrate salt

5685-86-9

P121

Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)–Iodine complex

25655-41-8

P129

Pyrantel pamoate

22204-24-6

P138

Ponazuril 

69004-04-2

R003

Rifampicin

13292-46-1

Q005

Quinaldopeptin

130743-07-6

Q010

Quinine

130-95-0

Q011

Quinine hydrochloride dihydrate

6119-47-7

S007

Spiramycin

8025-81-8

S035

Sulfadoxine

2447-57-6

S068

Selamectin

220119-17-5

S069

Sinefungin

58944-73-3

T004

Tetracycine Hydrochloride, EP

64-75-5

T016

Tetracycline, EP

60-54-8

T061

(−)-Tetramisole hydrochloride

16595-80-5

T051

Tetracycline, USP

60-54-8

T064

Tubercidin

69-33-0

T075

Teleocidin A

70497-14-2

T099

Trichostatin C

68676-88-0

T124

Toltrazuril

69004-03-1

T127

Tizoxanide

173903-47-4

V020

Violacein

548-54-9