Gentamicin Sulfate Solution (50 mg/ml in Water) contains Gentamicin Sulfate dissolved in water and filter-sterilized for use in prevention and control of bacterial contamination. The product is sterile.
Gentamicin Sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex discovered in 1963 and is derived from fermentation of Micromonospora purpurea or M. echinospora composed of different components including the Gentamicin C complex (gentamicin C1, gentamicin C1a, and gentamicin C2) which makes up 80% of the compound and has the highest antibacterial activity. Gentamicin A, B, X, and a few others make up the remaining 20% of the compound and have lower antibiotic activity.
In the face of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) DSR-052-04 includes the addition of Gentamicin Sulfate to viral transport media for SARS-CoV2 samples.
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|Mechanism of Action||Aminoglycosides target the 30S ribosomal subunit, blocking the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from acceptor to donor. This results in an inability to read mRNA ultimately producing a faulty or nonexistent protein.|
|Spectrum||Gentamicin Sulfate is broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is effective against several strains of Mycoplasma. It also combats certain β-lactam sensitive VRE or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus; a "superbug."|
|Microbiology Applications||Gentamicin sulfate is commonly used as a selective agent to select for cells containing the gentamicin resistance gene, aacj-AaphD or aacC1. Gentamicin sulfate is generally used at a concentration of 10 - 50 µg/mL for eukaryotic cells and 15 µg/ml for prokaryotic cells.
Gentamicin can be used as a selective agent in several types of isolation media:
Columbia Blood Agar - Gardnerella vaginalis Selective Supplement
VRE Medium - VRE Selective Supplement
Burkholderia cepacia Agar Base - Burkholderia cepacia Selective Supplement
According to the CDC SOP (DSR-052-04) for Viral Transport Medium (VTM), Gentamicin Sulfate is used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml. Our sterile, ready-made solution (50 mg/ml in water) can be added aseptically for streamlined workflows.
|Plant Biology Applications||Gentamicin Sulfate inhibited differentiation of tracheary elements in pith parenchyma cells in cultures of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Romana) at concentrations of 50-100 µg/ml. Similar results were obtained with cultured explants of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Callus formation was suppressed with increasing levels of Gentamicin Sulfate in both tissue systems. When studying cell division or xylem differentiation in culture, it is best to use ≤ 10 µg/ml.|
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||Gentamicin was found to inhibit Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity in rat erythrocytes (Temel et al, 2018).
A bovine macrophage (Bomac) cell line was used but proved to be contaminated with BVDV (bovine viral diarrhea virus). Both infected and cured cells were tested for uptake of Mycoplasma bovis in an in vitro model to dissect the molecular and cellular details of bovine mycoplasmosis using Gentamicin from TOKU-E in a gentamicin protection assay (Burgi et al, 2018).
Gentamicin is an effective in vitro bacterial inhibitor that is nontoxic in tissue culture. It was non-toxic to RMK (Rhesus monkey kidney), HeLa, amnion, GMK, and WI-38 cell lines. It can also be used in virus tissue culture as it does not inhibit virus replication. (Rudin et al, 1970).
When primary cultures of embryonic rat fibroblasts are exposed to Gentamicin, they develop typical lysosomal phospholipidosis characterized by decreased sphingomyelinase activity, increase in lipid phosphorus, and appearance of 'myeloid bodies' in lysosomes. However, when inhibitors of cysteine proteinases were used (leupeptin, E-64), authors observed a protective effect which could be due to increased sphingomyelinase activity (Montenez et al, 1984).
|Cancer Applications||Ovarian melanoma tumor cells was studied in 3D culture and Gentamicin Sulfate was used to prevent contamination when studying ovarian cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, 222, EG, and A2780-PAR ) and normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines (HIO 1120 and HIO 180). Tumor cells formed matrix-rich tubular networks containing channels surrounding spheroids of tumor cells, and this network may represent either a primitive microcirculatory-like network, or a remodeled vascularized portion of a tumor (Sood et al, 2001).|
Bürgi N, Josi C, Bürki S and Schweizer, Pilo P (2018) Mycoplasma bovis co-infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine macrophages. Vet. Res. 49(1):2. PMID 29316971
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. DSR-052-02: Preparation of viral transport medium. Link to SOP.
Davis, BD (1987) Mechanism of bactericidal action of aminoglycosides. Microbiol. Rev. 51(3): 341-350 PMID 3312985 Kadurugamuwa JL, Clarke AJ and Beveridge TJ (1993) Surface action of gentamicin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol 175(18):5798-5805 PMID 8376327