Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum second generation 4-fluoroquinolone antibiotic that targets the bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase and is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Mycoplasmas. Ciprofloxacin is sparingly soluble in aqueous solution.
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|Mechanism of Action||Fluoroquinolone antibiotics target bacterial DNA gyrase (topoisomerase type II), an enzyme which reduces DNA strain during replication and is essential for DNA packaging, transcription, and replication. Thus, DNA synthesis and cell division is inhibited.|
|Spectrum||Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also effective against Mycoplasmas.|
|Microbiology Applications||Ciprofloxacin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options.
|Plant Biology Applications||Garlic protoplasts were cultured in medium containing Ciprofloxacin, and the compound was successful at preventing microbial growth and was not toxic to the protoplasts (Fellner, 1995).|
|Cancer Applications||Two transitional cell carcinoma cell lines, MBT‐2 and T24, were used in an in vitro study of the effects of Ciprofloxacin on cell proliferation, and the compound was found to inhibit cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (Ebisuno et al, 1997).
When cells become malignant, they often lose their primary cilium, a microtubule-based sensory organelle. Thus, the potential to restore the cilium is being investigated as a therapeutic approach to attenuate tumor growth in cancer research. Commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs like Cefprozil can restore ciliogenesis, and thus they are referred to as ciliogenic drugs. Using pancreatic cancer cell lines CFPAC-1 and PANC-1, researchers found a causative link between secreted ATP and cilia induction via an autocrine/paracrine loop involving extracellular ATP-purinergic receptor signaling pathway (Khan et al, 2017).
|References||Ebisuno S, Inagaki T, Kohjimoto Y and Ohkawa T (1997) The cytotoxic effects of fleroxacin and Ciprofloxacin on transitional cell carcinoma in vitro. Cancer 80(12):2263-2267 PMID 9404703
Fellner M (1995) Influence of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin on culture of Allium longicuspis callus-derived protoplasts. Ann. Bot. 76: 219-223
Gignac SM, Brauer S, Hane B, Quentmeier H, and Drexler HG (1991) Elimination of Mycoplasma from infected leukemia cell lines. Leukemia 5(2):162-165 PMID 2020199
Ridgway GL, Mumtaz G, Gabriel FG, and Oriel JD (1986) The activity of Ciprofloxacin and other 4-Quinolones against Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasmas In Vitro. In: Neu HC, Reeves DS. (eds) Ciprofloxacin. Current Topics in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, vol 1. Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden
Schmitt K, Däubener W, Bitter-Suermann D, Hadding U(1988) A safe and efficient method for elimination of cell culture mycoplasmas using Ciprofloxacin. 109(1):17-25 PMID 3282011
Wolfson, JS and Hooper DC (1985) The Fluoroquinolones: Structures, mechanisms of action and resistance, and spectra of activity in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 28(4):581-586 PMID 3000292
Zeiler HJ and Grohe K. (1986) The in vitro and in vivo activity of Ciprofloxacin. In: Neu HC, Reeves DS (eds) Ciprofloxacin. Current Topics in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, vol 1. Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden
|MIC||Staphylococcus aureus (1001)| ≤7.81 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1004)| ≤7.81 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1014)| ≤7.81 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1015)| ≤7.81 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1019)| 15 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1061)| >1000 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1063)| ≤7.81 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (1080)| >1000 － ?| 791| Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923)| 15 － ?| 791||