Metronidazole, Micronized is a limited spectrum antimicrobial and antiprotozoal. Micronization into particles with reduced diameters have higher dissolution rates, which increases efficacy. Originally, Metronidazole was developed as an anti-parasitic compound, and its antibacterial properties were discovered purely by accident in 1962.
|Mechanism of Action||Metronidazole is inactive until metabolized within host or microbial cells. It is activated under strongly reducing conditions, when it receives an electron from ferredoxin or flavodoxin that was reduced by the fermentation enzyme POR. The mechanism of resistance in H. pylori is to to a null mutation in the rdxA gene, which encodes an oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase. In contrast, resistance in bacterioides is plasmid mediated.|
|Spectrum||Effective against anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria (ie acteroides and Fusobacterium), anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (ie Clostridia) and Protozoa (ie Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis).|
Samuelson J (1999) Why metronidazole is active against both bacteria and parasites Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43(7):1533-1541 PMID 10390199
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