Amphotericin B, USP is a polyene antifungal or antimycotic compound derived from Streptomyces nodosus. It is used to control contamination from fungi, viruses and protozoa.
TOKU-E offers 3 forms of Amphotericin B:
The compound is nearly insoluble in water at pH 6-7 (but is soluble at pH 2 or 11). It is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide.
Amphotericin B, USP conforms to United States Pharmacopoeia specifications.
|Mechanism of Action||Amphotericin B associates with membrane sterols (ergosterol in fungal cell membranes, and cholesterol in mammalian cell membranes). Amphotericin B forms a pore in these membranes resulting in leakage of essential ions and ultimately cell death.|
|Spectrum||Amphotericin B is active against mammalian cells, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Amphotericin B is not toxic to bacteria due to their lack of sterols.|
The following represents MIC susceptibility data for amphotericin B against common fungal pathogens:
|Microbiology Applications||Amphotericin B is used as an antimycotic selective agent in several routinely used selective media formulations to inhibit the growth of background fungal growth. It can also combat viruses and protozoa.|
|Plant Biology Applications||Amphotericin B can be used to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.|
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||Amphotericin B can be used in eukaryotic cell culture to control or prevent contamination from fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Amphotericin B can be toxic to cell lines at high concentrations and should not be used at concentrations greater than 2.50 µg/mL. Amphotericin B has been used in in vitro to inhibit the generation of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein when studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Mangé et al 2000).|
|References||Brajtburg, J, Powderly WG, Kobayashi GS, and Medoff G. (1990) Amphotericin B: Current understanding of mechanisms of action. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 34 (2):183-88. PMID 2183713 |
Mangé A et al. (2000) Amphotericin B inhibits the generation of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein in infected cultures. J. Virol. 74(7):3135-3140 PMID 10708429
Perez-de-Luque A et al. (2012) Effect of Amphotericin B nanodisks on plant fungal diseases. 68(1). PMID 21710554
Rice, LB, and Ghannoum MA (1999). Antifungal Agents: Mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance.. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12(4):501-517 PMID 10515900
Radomski N, Cambau E, Moulin L, Haenn S, Moilleron R, and Lucas FS (2010) Comparison of culture methods for isolation of nontuberculous Mycobacteria from surfacewaters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 76(11):3514-3520 PMID 20363776
Schaffner CP et al (1986) Anti-viral activity of Amphotericin B methyl ester: inhibition of HTLV-III replication in cell culture. Biochem. Pharmacol. 35(22):4110-4113 PMID 3640625
Sokol-Anderson ML, Braitburg J, Medoff G (1986) Amphotericin B-induced oxidative damage and killing of Candida albicanss. J. Infect. Dis. 154(1):76-83 PMID 3519792