Dicloxacillin Sodium is the sodium salt form of Dicloxacillin, a narrow-spectrum, β-lactam belonging to the Penicillin class. It interferes with bacterial cell walls. Dicloxacillin has similar properties to oxacillin and flucloxacillin.
|Mechanism of Action||β-lactams interfere with PBP (penicillin binding protein) activity involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues providing additional strength to the cell wall. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised and ultimately leads to cell lysis and death. Resistance to β-lactams is commonly due to cells containing plasmid encoded β-lactamases. Oxacillin however, is resistant to the degradative effects of β-lactamases. Dicloxacin may interfere with autolysin inhibitors.|
|Spectrum||Activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including S. aureus.|
Dicloxacillin Sodium can used for for penicillin G-resistant Staphylococci.
Dicloxacillin Sodium is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options. Representative MIC values include:
Diplococcus pneumoniae: 0.02-6.3 ug/ml
For list of Dixloxacillin Sodium MIC values, click here. (editor link: please hyperlink to: http://antibiotics.toku-e.com/antimicrobial_4712.html)
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||
Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the endothelial hybrid cell line EaHy926 were exposed to Dicloxacillin Sodium at 6250 m/L. Dicloxacillin increased the number of cells with ICAM-1 expression by 37%. This supports the theory that endothelial cells may initiate an inflammatory response through expression of ICAM-1 (Lanbeck et al, 2004).
|Molecular Formula||C19H16Cl2N3O5S • Na • H2O|
Echezarreta-López MM, Otero-Mazoy I, Ramírez HL, Villalonga R,Torres-Labandeira JJ (2008) Solubilization and stabilization of sodium dicloxacillin by cyclodextrin inclusion. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 5(2):140-145 PMID 18673252
Lenbeck P, Odenholt I and Riesbeck K (2004) Dicloxacillin and erythromycin at high concentrations increase ICAM-1 expression by endothelial cells: A possible factor in the pathogenesis of infusion phlebitis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53(2):174-179 PMID 14729754
Sandberg A et al (2010) Intra- and extracellular activities of dicloxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo and in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54(6):2391-400 PMID 20308386
Sandberg A et al (2011) Intra- and extracellular activities of Dicloxacillin and linezolid against a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain with a small-colony-variant phenotype in an in vitro model of THP-1 macrophages and an in vivo mouse peritonitis model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 55(4):1443-1452 PMID 21282430