Quinine is a naturally occurring chemical compound, a cinchona alkaloid first isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree in 1820. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which contains an aromatic quinoline and a bicyclic quinuclidine. It functions as a potassium channel blocker and is used as an anti-malarial.
Quinine can be used as a standard during the chemical evaluation of alkaloids.
Bark extracts have been used to treat malaria since 1632 (Sullivan, 2011) and Quinine was the first drug used to treat malaria (Achan et al, 2011).
Quinine is also used in nutrition research as a standard for bitterness.
|Mechanism of Action||The mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved. Cell fractionation studies in parasitology have shown that it inhibits hemozoin formation in the parasite cell which allows buildup of cytotoxic heme resulting in death. Quinine also acts as a potassium channel blocker.|
A study of 60 isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand showed susceptibility to Quinine, with variable MIC values (10-6 - 10-8 M)(Thaithong et al, 1983).
|Solubility||Water: soluble, Freely soluble in ethanol and chloroform’|
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Sullivan, DJ (2011) Cinchona Alkaloids: Quinine and Quinidine. In: Treatment and prevention of malaria: Antimalarial drug chemistry, action and use. ed by Staines HM and Krishna S. Springer Basel pp. 45-65
Thaithong S, Beale GH, Chutmongkonkul M (1983 ) Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to five drugs: An in vitro study of isolates mainly from Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 77(2):228-231 PMID 6346591