Quinine Hydrochloride is a naturally occurring chemical compound, an alkaloid, and potassium channel blocker. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which contains an aromatic quinoline and a bicyclic quinuclidine. It was first isolated from the bark of a cinchona tree in 1820.
|Mechanism of Action||The mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved. A closely related drug, chloroquine, is toxic to parasites by inhibiting hemozoin biocrystallization in the heme detoxification pathway, which allows buildup of cytotoxic heme which accumulates in the parasites resulting in death.|
Quinine Hydrochloride is commonly used in sensory evaluation experiments in food science as a standard for bitterness. Quinine is the ingredient in tonic water that gives it its bitter taste, quantity is limited to less than 83 PPM in the US, per FDA Food additive status list. Bark extracts have been used to treat malaria since 1632 (Sullivan, 2011) and Quinine was the first drug used to treat malaria (Achan J et al, 2011). Quinine is used as a chiral catalyst backbone. Quinine Sulfate is used in photochemistry as a common fluorescence standard, due to its constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield. (Lakowicz 2006).
|Molecular Formula||C20H24N2O2 ∙ HCl|
Achan J et al (2011) Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria. Malar. J 10:144 PMID 21609473
Hansen JL, Reed DR, Wright MJ, Martin NG and Breslin PA (2006) Heritability and genetic covariation of sensitivity to PROP, SOA, quinine HCl, and caffeine. Chem Senses Volume 31(5):403-413 PMID 16527870
Chang WI, Chung JW, Kim YK, Chung SC and Kho HS (2006) The relationship between phenylthicarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status and taste thresholds for sucrose and quinine. Arch. Oral Biol. 51(5):427-432 PMID 16297856
Lakowicz JR (2006) Instrumentation for fluorescence spectroscopy. In: Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy. 3rd ed. Springer-Verlag pp. 54
Sullivan, DJ (2011) Cinchona Alkaloids: Quinine and Quinidine. In: Treatment and prevention of malaria: Antimalarial drug chemistry, action and use. ed by Staines HM and Krishna S. Springer Basel pp. 45-65