Salinomycin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus that has been widely used as an agricultural antibiotic to prevent coccidiosis in poultry. Salinomycin was first isolated in 1974 by the research division of Kaken Chemical Co. in Tokyo Japan.
Salinomycin sodium effect the cell mambrane permeability by increasing cation movement across cell membranes through exchange-diffusion, resulting in altered gradients due to a lack of control of ion permeability. This effect allows ions (K+, Na+, Ca+, Mg2+) to accumulate inside the cell, reaching toxic levels. Salinomycin is effective against gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, some filamentous fungi, and coccidia.
Salinomycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines and to inhibit multidrug resistance protein 1.
TOKU-E offers two forms of salinomycin: salinomycin (S001) and salinomycin sodium (S002). Salinomycin is slightly soluble in methanol at 10 mg/mL. Salinomycin sodium is insoluble in water, freely soluble in acetone, and 200 mg/mL soluble in ethanol.
This product is considered a dangerous good. Quantities above 1 g may be subject to additional shipping fees. Please contact us for specific questions.
synonyms: Coxistal, Coxistac
Fangyuan Xie et al. used salinomycin from TOKU-E to study its efficacy toward liver cancer cells when used in combination with chloroquine. Read more here: "Codelivery of salinomycin and chloroquine by liposomes enables synergistic antitumor activity in vitro."
|Mechanism of Action||Salinomycin interacts with the gram positive cell membrane which decreases control of ion permeability. This effect allows ions (K+, Na+, Ca+, Mg2+) to accumulate inside the cell to toxic levels.|
|Spectrum||Salinomycin targets primarily the gram positive cell wall to allow ion transport into the cell. Gram negative organisms are unaffected by salinomycin because of their additional outer membrane. Salinomycin is also effective against mycobacteria, some filamentous fungi, and coccidia.|
|Impurity Profile||Arsenic: Not more than 0.0004%|
Elaiophilin: Not more than 0.0032%
|Microbiology Applications||Salinomycin is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against gram positive microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:|
Salinomycin is a promising anti-cancer agent which selectively targets cancer stem cells. Cancer stems cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within tumors that drive tumor growth and recurrence. They are resistant to many current cancer treatments. Salinomycin sodium shows selective toxicity for the CSCs that exist as a subpopulation within HMLER breast cancer cells. A salinomycin treatment of 4T1 and MCF-7-Ras breast cancer cell lines results in a reduction of CSCs. Treatment of 5 mg/kg salinomycin in mice implanted with SUM159 human breast cancer cells inhibits mammary tumor growth and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells.
Adam Huczynski (2012). "Salinomycin – a New Cancer Drug Candidate". Chemical Biology & Drug Design 79: 235–238.
Yurkovich, Marie E. et al.; Tyrakis, Petros A.; Hong, Hui; Sun, Yuhui; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Kamiya, Kohei; Leadlay, Peter F. (2011-11-11). "A Late-Stage Intermediate in Salinomycin Biosynthesis Is Revealed by Specific Mutation in the Biosynthetic Gene Cluster". ChemBioChem 13 (1): 66–71.
Gupta, P. et al.; Onder, Tamer T.; Jiang, Guozhi; Tao, Kai; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Weinberg, Robert A.; Lander, Eric S. (2009-08-13). "Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening". Cell 138 (4): 645–59
Eameema Muntimadugu, Rajendra Kumar, Shantikumar Saladi, Towseef Amin Rafeeqi, Wahid Khan, "CD44 targeted chemotherapy for co-eradication of breast cancer stem cells and cancer cells using polymeric nanoparticles of salinomycin and paclitaxel", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Vol. 143 (2016): 532-546
|MIC||Campylobacter jejuni| >256|| Clostridium perfringens| ≤0.125 － 0.25|| Enterococcus faecalis| ≥0.5|| Escherichia coli | >256|| Salmonella enteritidis| >256|| Staphylococcus aureus| 2|||