Cephalothin Sodium, USP is a semisynthetic, β-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. It is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Cephalothin Sodium is inactivated by cephalosporinase.
Cephalothin Sodium is freely soluble in aqueous solution.
|Mechanism of Action||Like β-lactams, cephalosporins interfere with PBP (penicillin binding protein) activity involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues providing additional strength to the cell wall. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised and ultimately leads to cell lysis and death. Resistance to cephalosporins is commonly due to cells containing plasmid encoded β-lactamases.|
|Spectrum||Cephalothin Sodium is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin targeting a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially those which cause respiratory and skin infections.|
|Microbiology Applications||Cephalothin Sodium is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options. Representative MIC values include: |
Cephalothin can be used as a selective agent in several types of isolation media:
Columbia Blood Agar - Campylobacter selective supplement (Blaser-Wang)
|Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications||In vitro cytotoxicity test for estimating the non-ocular irritation dose of ophthalmic solutions was studied using human epidermal keratinocytes in a monolayer. This system can estimate non-ocular irritation dose in advance of the in vivo tests (Nagami and Maki, 1993). |
Cephalothin resistance in E. coli was found to be mediated by OxyS RNA, a small non-coding RNA which is induced in response to oxidative stress. OxyS modulates gene expression in multiple pathways to develop resistance. In fact, 17 CRP-associated pathway genes are involved. (Cho and Kim, 2018).
|Impurity Profile||Chromatographic Purity: |
Individual Impurity: ≤ 1.0%
Total Impurities: ≤ 3.0%
|Impurities||Individual Impurity: ≤1.0% |
Total Impurities: ≤3.0%
Cho H and Kim K (2018) Escherichia coli OxyS RNA triggers Cephalothin resistance by modulating the expression of CRP-associated genes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm 506(1):66-72 PMID 30340824
Georgopapadakou, NH (1992) Mechanisms of action of Cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37(3): 559-565
Nagami K, Maki E (1993) In vitro cytotoxicity test for estimating non-ocular irritation dose of ophthalmic solutions. Cell Biol and Toxicol 9(2):107-118 PMID 8242427
|MIC||Diplococcus pneumoniae| 0.01 － 0.8|| Haemophilus influenzae| 3.1 － 25|| Neisseria gonorrhoeae| 0.03 － 8|| Stenotrophomonas maltophilia| >128|||