SKU: C026  / 
    CAS Number: 58-71-9

    Cephalothin sodium, USP

    $71.95 - $108.19

    Cephalothin sodium, USP is a semisynthetic, beta-lactam, first generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity.  It is effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  Cephalothin sodium is inactivated by cephalosporinase.  The compound is freely soluble in aqueous solution (50 mg/mL).

    Mechanism of ActionLike β-lactams, cephalosporins interfere with PBP (penicillin binding protein) activity involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues providing additional strength to the cell wall. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised and ultimately leads to cell lysis and death. Resistance to cephalosporins is commonly due to cells containing plasmid encoded β-lactamases.
    SpectrumCephalothin sodium is a broad spectrum cephalosporin targeting a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially those which cause respiratory and skin infections.
    Microbiology ApplicationsCephalothin sodium is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-negative microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options for infected patients. Representative MIC values include:

    • Escherichia coli 0.78 µg/mL - >128 µg/mL
    • Staphylococcus aureus 0.25 µg/mL - >23.9 µg/mL
    • For a complete list of cephalothin MIC values, click here.

    Media Supplements

    Cephalothin can be used as a selective agent in several types of isolation media:

    Columbia Blood Agar - Campylobacter selective supplement (Blaser-Wang)

    Eukaryotic Cell Culture ApplicationsIn vitro cytotoxicity test for estimating the non-ocular irritation dose of ophthalmic solutions was studied using human epidermal keratinocytes in a monolayer. This system can estimate non-ocular irritation dose in advance of the in vivo tests. (Nagami and Maki, 1993).

    Cephalothin resistance in E. coli was found to be mediated by OxyS RNA, a small non-coding RNA which is induced in response to oxidative stress . OxyS modulates gene expression in multiple pathways to develop resistance. In fact, 17 CRP-associated pathway genes are involved. (Cho and Kim, 2018).
    Molecular FormulaC16H15N2NaO6S2
    Impurity ProfileChromatographic Purity:
    Individual Impurity: ≤ 1.0%
    Total Impurities: ≤ 3.0%
    ImpuritiesIndividual Impurity: ≤1.0%
    Total Impurities: ≤3.0%
    References

    Cho H and Kim K (2018) Escherichia coli OxyS RNA triggers cephalothin resistance by modulating the expression of CRP-associated genes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm 506(1):66-72 PMID 30340824

    Georgopapadakou, NH (1992)  Mechanisms of Action of Cephalosporin 3'-quinolone Esters, Carbamates, and Tertiary Amines in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37(3): 559-565

    Nagami K, Maki E (1993) In vitro cytotoxicity test for estimating non-ocular irritation dose of ophthalmic solutions. Cell Biol and Toxicol 9(2):107-118 PMID 8242427

    MICDiplococcus pneumoniae| 0.01 - 0.8|| Haemophilus influenzae| 3.1 - 25|| Neisseria gonorrhoeae| 0.03 - 8|| Stenotrophomonas maltophilia| >128||