SKU: M011  / 
    CAS Number: 443-48-1

    Metronidazole

    $93.99 - $534.39

    Metronidazole is a bioactive small molecule and broad-spectrum nitromidazole antibiotic used against anaerobic bacteria and parasites.  The hydroxy metabolite, 1-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-2-hydroxy methyl-5-nitroimidazole is considered the major active metabolite from the 5 metabolites produced in vivo.

    Metronidazole is sparingly soluble in aqueous solution.

    Mechanism of Action

    Metronidazole has a unique mode of action, its metabolites forming unstable molecules which are incorporated into cellular DNA, and inhibit DNA replication and transcription. This mechanism has a bactericidal effect on anaerobic cell-encoded β-lactamases.  It has shown activity against the majority of obligate anaerobes, but did not demonstrate significant in vitro activity against facultative anaerobes or obligate aerobes. 

    Spectrum Metronidazole is mostly used against anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Clostridium difficile and Bacteroides fragilis. It can also be used for parasites  like Entamoeba histolyticaGiardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.
    Impurity Profile Any impurity: Not more than 0.1%
    Total impurities: Not more than 0.2%
    Microbiology Applications

    The effect of Metronidazole, along with gentamicin and vancomycin, was evaluated in the gut microbiome of the T-bet−/−Rag2−/−  ulcerative colitis (TRUC) mouse mode.  This model is useful for studying gut microbiome contributions to colonic inflammatory pathogenesis under disease state and treatment-induced remission and reviewing the microbes and microbial pathways involved in IBD and host-microbiota responses, offering the potential for therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiome in colitis (Rooks et al, 2014).

    Metronidazole is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic microbial isolates. Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options . Representative MIC values include:

      • Clostridium difficile 0.25 µg/mL – 0.5 µg/mL
      • Bacteroides fragilis 0.125 µg/mL -1 µg/mL
      • For a complete list of Metronidazole MIC values, click here.
    Eukaryotic Cell Culture Applications Metronidazole cytotoxicity was assessed in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) when it was mixed with a polydioxanone polymer solution (PDS) and processed into bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds. Research suggests that these scaffolds could be a biologically safe antimicrobial delivery system for regenerative endodontics (Bottino et al, 20130).
    Molecular Formula C6H9N3O3
    Residual Solvents Methylene oxide: Not more than 0.15 ppm
    Formic acid: Not more than 124 ppm
    References

    Bottino MC et al (2013)   Bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerative endodontics. J. Dent. Res.  92(11):963-969  PMID 24056225

    Lofmark S, Edlund C and Nord CE (2010)  Metronidazole Is still the drug of choice for treatment of anaerobic infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 50 Suppl 1:S16-23

    Rooks et al (2014)  Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. ISME J 8(7):1403-1417  PMID 24500617

    MIC Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans| 32|| Bacillus circulans| 0.125 - >32|| Bacillus subtilis (PCI219)| >200|| Bacteroides bivius| 2|| Bacteroides caccae| 0.5 - 16|| Bacteroides capillosus | ≤0.03 - 4|| Bacteroides disiens| 0.25 - 2|| Bacteroides distasonis| 0.25 - 4|| Bacteroides eggerthii (ATCC 27754)| ≥0.5|| Bacteroides forsythus| ≤6.2 - 12.5|| Bacteroides fragilis| ≤0.06 - >128|| Bacteroides melaninogenicus| 0.25 - 2|| Bacteroides merdae| 0.5 - 4|| Bacteroides oralis | 0.25 - 2|| Bacteroides ovatus| 0.25 - 4|| Bacteroides pneumosintes| ≥1|| Bacteroides ruminicola subsp. brevis| 0.25 - 2|| Bacteroides tectum | 0.125 - 2|| Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron| ≤0.062 - 4|| Bacteroides uniformis| 0.25 - 4|| Bacteroides ureolyticus| ≤0.03 - ≤6.2 || Bacteroides vulgatus| 0.12 - >128|| Bacteroides xylanisolvens | ≥0.25|| Bifidobacterium adolescentis| 16 - 32|| Bifidobacterium bifidum| 4 - 64|| Bifidobacterium breve| 0.125 - >32|| Bifidobacterium longum| 0.125 - >32|| Bifidobacterium longum| ≥8|| Bifidobacterium pseudolongum| 16 - >128|| Bifidobacterium spp.| >0.16 - >16|| Bilophila wadsworthia| 0.06 - >128|| Campylobacter coli| ≤0.12 - ≥64|| Campylobacter concisus| 0.25 - 4|| Campylobacter gracilis| 0.25 - 4|| Campylobacter helveticus| ≥16|| Campylobacter jejuni | 0.25 - >64|| Campylobacter mucosalis| 0.25 - 4|| Campylobacter rectus| 0.25 - 4|| Campylobacter showae| 0.25 - 4|| Campylobacter sputorum| 0.25 - 4|| Capnocytophaga ochracea | ≤0.03 - 4|| Capnocytophaga spp.| 16 - >32|| Citrobacter freundii (IFO 12681)| ≥128|| Clostridium baratii| 0.25 - 2|| Clostridium bifermentans| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium butyricum| 0.02 - >128|| Clostridium cadaveris| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium clostridioforme| 0.02 - >128|| Clostridium cochlearium| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium difficile| 0.0039 ->8|| Clostridium fallax| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium glycolicum| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium hastiforme| ≤0.125 - 2|| Clostridium histolyticum | ≤0.125 - 1|| Clostridium innocuum| 0.12 - 2|| Clostridium malenominatum| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium novyi| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium oroticum| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium paraputrificum| 0.02 - 2|| Clostridium perfringens| 0.06 - >128|| Clostridium ramosum| 0.12 - >128|| Clostridium septicum| 0.12 - >128|| Clostridium sordellii| 0.12 - 2|| Clostridium sp.| ≥0.5|| Clostridium species| 41276|| Clostridium spiroforme| 0.063 - 0.125|| Clostridium sporogenes| 0.12 - >128|| Clostridium spp.| 0.015 - >128|| Clostridium subterminale| ≥0.5|| Clostridium tertium| ≤0.125 - 2|| Collinsella aerofaciens| ≤0.03 - 2|| Desulfovibrio piger (DSM 749)| ≥0.25|| Dialister pneumosintes | ≤0.03 - 4|| Eggerthella lenta| 0.25 - 0.5|| Eikenella corrodens| 8 - >64|| Entamoeba histolytica| 2 - <2.5|| Enterobacter cloacae| ≥128|| Enterococcus avium| ≥1024|| Enterococcus faecalis| >128 - ≥1024|| Enterococcus faecium| ≥1024|| Escherichia coli| >8 - >200|| Eubacterium| 0.12 - >64|| Eubacterium aerofaciens | ≥16|| Eubacterium alactolyticum| ≥0.5|| Eubacterium brachy| 0.02 - 1|| Eubacterium combesii| 0.02 - 1|| Eubacterium contortum| 0.02 - 1|| Eubacterium lentum| 0.02 - >16|| Eubacterium limosum| 0.02 - >64|| Eubacterium nodatum| 0.12 - >64|| Eubacterium saburreum| 0.02 - 1|| Eubacterium spp.| ≤0.03 - >128|| Eubacterium tenue| 0.02 - 1|| Eubacterium timidum| 0.02 - 2|| Eubacterium yurii| 0.02 - 2|| Finegoldia magna| 0.094 - 2|| Fusobacteria| ≤0.125 - 1|| Fusobacterium glutinosum| ≥16|| Fusobacterium gonidiaformans | 0.125 - 4|| Fusobacterium mortiferum| 0.06 - >128|| Fusobacterium naviforme| ≤0.03 - 4|| Fusobacterium necrogenes | 0.125 - 1|| Fusobacterium necrophorum| 0.06 - >128|| Fusobacterium nucleatum| 0.016 - >128|| Fusobacterium russii | ≤0.015 - 0.25|| Fusobacterium spp.| 0.008 - >128|| Fusobacterium ulcerans | 0.125 - 1|| Fusobacterium varium| 0.06 - >128|| Gardnerella vaginalis| ≤0.25 - >32|| Gemella morbillorum| ≥16|| Giardia duodenalis| ≥8.5|| Helicobacter bilis| ≥2|| Helicobacter mustelae| ≥4|| Helicobacter pullorum| ≥16|| Helicobacter pylori| 0.125 - 256|| Klebsiella pneumonia| >128 - >200|| Lactobacillus acidophilus| 0.5 - >1000|| Lactobacillus brevis| 0.5 - >32|| Lactobacillus casei| 0.5 - >32|| Lactobacillus catenaforme| 0.125 - >32|| Lactobacillus delbrueckii| 0.125 - >32|| Lactobacillus fermentans| 0.5 - >32|| Lactobacillus fermentum| ≥16|| Lactobacillus gasseri | ≥1000|| Lactobacillus jensenii| 0.12 - >64|| Lactobacillus johnsonii| ≥1000|| Lactobacillus minutus| 0.5 - >32|| Lactobacillus oris| 0.125 - >32|| Lactobacillus paracasei| ≥1000|| Lactobacillus plantarum| 0.125 - >32|| Lactobacillus reuteri| ≥16|| Lactobacillus rhamnosus| 0.5 - >32|| Lactobacillus salivarius| >16 - >1000|| Lactobacillus sp.| 0.12 - >128|| Leptotrichia buccalis| ≤0.03 - 2|| Micromonas micros| 0.12 - 2|| Moraxella catarrhalis| ≥4|| Morganella morganii| >128 - >200|| Olsenella uli| 0.125 - >32|| Parvimonas micra| 0.032 - >256|| Peptococcus asaccharolyticus| 0.5 - 1|| Peptococcus magnus | 0.125 - 2|| Peptococcus niger| ≤6.2|| Peptococcus sp.| 0.25 - 2|| Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus| ≤0.125 - 2|| Peptoniphilus gorbachii | 0.023 - 0.5|| Peptoniphilus harei | 0.032 - 2|| Peptoniphilus indolicus (GAI 0915)| ≥0.5|| Peptoniphilus ivorii | 0.094 - 0.25|| Peptoniphilus lacrimalis | 0.023 - 0.38|| Peptoniphilus octavius | ≥0.38|| Peptostreptococcus| 0.12 - 2|| Peptostreptococcus anaerobius| 0.12 - >128|| Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus| 0.12 - >16|| Peptostreptococcus magnus| 0.06 - >128|| Peptostreptococcus micros| 0.06 - >128|| Peptostreptococcus prevotii| ≤0.062 - >16|| Peptostreptococcus spp.| ≤0.03 - >128|| Peptostreptococcus tetradius| ≤0.125 - >16|| Porphyromonas| 0.125 - 8|| Porphyromonas asaccharolytica| ≤0.015 - 12.5|| Porphyromonas cangingivalis | ≤0.015 - 0.25|| Porphyromonas canoris | ≤0.015 - 0.5|| Porphyromonas cansulci | ≤0.015 - 0.25|| Porphyromonas circumdentaria | ≤0.015 - 0.25|| Porphyromonas endodontalis | ≤0.03 - 4|| Porphyromonas gingivalis| ≤0.03 - 4|| Porphyromonas levii | ≤0.015 - 0.25|| Porphyromonas macacae | ≤0.015 - 0.125|| Porphyromonas spp.| ≤0.125 - >128|| Prevotella bivia| 0.12 - >16|| Prevotella buccae| 0.06 - >128|| Prevotella buccalis| 0.06 - ≤6.2|| Prevotella corporis | ≤0.03 - 2|| Prevotella dentalis | 0.06 - 2|| Prevotella denticola| ≤0.03 - 4|| Prevotella disiens| 0.06 - 4|| Prevotella heparinolytica | 0.06 - 1|| Prevotella intermedia| 0.03 - >128|| Prevotella loescheii| ≤0.03 - ≤6.2|| Prevotella melaninogenica| ≤0.03 - 4|| Prevotella melaninogenicus | 0.12 - >128|| Prevotella nigrescens| 0.06 - 2|| Prevotella oralis| 0.06 - >128|| Prevotella oris| 0.06 - 4|| Prevotella pallens | 0.06 - 2|| Prevotella spp.| 0.06 - >128|| Prevotella tannerae | ≤0.03 - 2|| Prevotella zooglioformans | 0.06 - 2|| Prevotella/Porphyromonas spp.| ≤0.125 - 2|| Propionibacteria| >16|| Propionibacterium| 0.12 - >64|| Propionibacterium acnes| ≥16|| Propionibacterium avidum| 0.125 - >32|| Propionibacterium granulosum| 8 - >200|| Propionibacterium propionicus| 8 - >32|| Propionibacterium spp.| ≥16|| Proteus mirabilis| ≥200|| Proteus vulgaris| 64 - >200|| Providencia rettgeri| ≥200|| Pseudomonas aeruginosa | >128 - >200|| Ruminococcus gnavus| ≥0.094|| Selenomonas flueggei | ≤0.03 - 4|| Selenomonas infelix | ≤0.03 - 4|| Selenomonas spp.| ≤0.03 - 4|| Serratia marcescens| >128 - >200|| Staphylococcus aureus| 2 - >1024|| Staphylococcus epidermidis| 4 - >1024|| Staphylococcus saccharolyticus| ≥16|| Streptococcus constellatus| ≥16|| Streptococcus intermedius| ≥16|| Streptococcus pneumonia| ≥128|| Sutterella wadsworthensis| 0.25 - >128|| Treponema hyodysenteriae | ≤0.1 - 0.39|| Veillonella dispar | 2|| Veillonella parvula| 0.12 - >128|| Veillonella spp.| 0.12 - >128|| Xanthomonas campestris| 512||