Milbemycin Oxime is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum macrocyclic lactone containing a 16-membered macrocyclic ring. Milbemycin Oxime is produced by fermentation of the soil-dwelling Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. aureolacrimosus followed by chemical modification (oxidation and oximation) of Milbemycin mixture A3 and A4 (~ 30:70 ratio). It is commonly used as an insecticide, parasiticide, and nematocide. Milbemycins are closely related to the avermectin class.
Milbemycin Oxime is sparingly soluble in DMSO.
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|Mechanism of Action||In invertebrates, macrocyclic lactones (MLs) can open ligand-gated chloride channels such as glutamate-sensitive chloride ion channels. When bound, MLs causes an influx of chloride into the parasite neurons leading to hyperpolarization, paralysis, and death.
In mammals, MLs bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-gated chloride channels (GABAA receptors). GABA is the primary neurotransmitter in the brain. MLs are believed to bind to GABAA receptors, which are only present in the central nervous system.
Milbemycin Oxime has surprising intrinsic antifungal activity. It inhibits fungal growth by inhibiting ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Fungicidal activity could be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) species formation in these species.
|Spectrum||Milbemycin Oxime is active against arthropods, nematodes, insects, and mites (Sarcoptes, Demodex). It is also active against fungi including C. albicans, C. glabrata.|
|Impurity Profile||Impurity G: ≤ 2.0%
Impurity E: ≤ 0.7%
Impurity H: ≤ 0.5%
Impurity I: ≤ 0.5%
Any other impurity: ≤ 0.2%
Total impurities: ≤ 3.5%
|Molecular Formula||Milbemycin A3 - C31H43NO7
Milbemycin A4 - C32H45NO7
|Solubility||Very soluble in anhydrous ethanol and ethyl acetate. Soluble in ethanol, methanol and DMF. Sparingly soluble in DMSO.|
|Assay||(A3 + A4): 95.0 - 102.0%
A3 Ratio: ≤ 0.20
A4 Ratio: ≥ 0.80
Ethanol: ≤ 5000 ppm
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