Cephapirin Sodium is a broad-spectrum, beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin C with bactericidal activity. It is an inhibitor of penicillinase. Its major metabolite is deacetylcephapirin, which represents approximately 50% of its antimicrobial activity.
|Mechanism of Action||Like β-lactams, Cephalosporins interfere with penicilln binding protein (PBP) activity involved in the final phase of peptidoglycan synthesis. PBP’s are enzymes which catalyze a pentaglycine crosslink between alanine and lysine residues providing additional strength to the cell wall. Without a pentaglycine crosslink, the integrity of the cell wall is severely compromised and ultimately leads to cell lysis and death. Resistance to cephalosporins is commonly due to cells containing plasmid-encoded β-lactamases.|
|Spectrum||Cephapirin Sodium is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and has a has a spectrum similar to Cephalothin Sodium. Gram-positive bacteria include S. aureus with the exception of MRSA. Gram-negative organisms include E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and indole-negative Proteus. Serratia, Psdudomonas, indol-positive Proteus, and Erwinia strains were highly resistant.|
|Microbiology Applications||Cephapirin Sodium is commonly used in clinical in vitro microbiological antimicrobial susceptibility tests (panels, discs, and MIC strips). Medical microbiologists use AST results to recommend antibiotic treatment options. Effective concentration ranges include: Diplococcus pneumoniae: 0.003-0.2 μg/ml Haemophilus influenzae: 3.1-12.5 ug/ml Environmental surveillance of pathogenic viruses is critical for monitoring spread. Poliovirus and male-specific coliphage MS2 are used as models of enteric viruses. Detection from wastewater using bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) can be used to filter samples in the field, and only cartridge filters are transported off-site lab for analysis. During shipment, the viruses may be inactivated and may experience contamination by bacteria and fungi. An antibiotic cocktail can inhibit overgrowth during shipment. A cocktail containing Cephapirin (50 (PPB) along with Gentamicin (100 PPB) , and Proclin™ 300 (15 PPM) increased recovery of virus. This method could could allow environmental virus surveillance in remote locations (Fagnant et al, 2017).|
|Molecular Formula||C17H16N3O6S2 • Na|
|References||Axelrod J, Meyers BR and Hirschman SZ (1971) Cephapirin: In vitro antibacterial spectrum. Appl. Microbiol. 22(5):904-908 PMID 5132096 Bran JL, Levison ME and Kaye D (1972) Clinical and in vitro evaluation of Cephapirin, a new cephalosporin antibiotic. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1(1):35-40. PMID 4596741 Fagnant CS et al (2017) Use of preservative agents and antibiotics for increased poliovirus survival on positively charged filters. Food Environ. Virol. 9(4):383-394 PMID 28616833 Finland M, Garner C, Wilcox C and Sabath LD (1976) Susceptibility of pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae to antibacterial Agents. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother 9(2):274-287 PMID 5052 Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) (1975) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 5th ed. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., p. 1161|