Bialaphos Sodium is a freely soluble herbicide synthesized by Streptomyces hygroscopicus and Streptomyces viridochromeogenes. It is commonly used for gene selection in cereals.
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|Mechanism of Action||Bialaphos acts as a prodrug by separating into individual subunits of alanylalanine and phosphinothricin. Phosphinothricin is toxic to cells by triggering the accumulation of ammonia, and inhibiting photosynthesis and glutamine synthesis.|
|Microbiology Applications||BIalaphos Sodium (TOKU-E) was used to study its effects on oligopeptide transporters in a Sinorhizobium meliloti hfq mutant. (Sobrero et al, 2011)|
|Plant Biology Applications||Bialaphos Sodium is used in transformation of cereals including wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum, oat and rye. The bar gene is incorporated in the plant genome along with the gene of interest. When Bialaphos is applied, only plants which are successfully transformed survive (Aragão, 2002).|
|References||Aragão FJL and Brasileiro ACM (2001) Positive, negative and marker-free strategies for transgenic plant selection. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 14(1):1-10 |
Dedicova B, Bermudez C, Prias M, Zuniga E, Brondani C (2015) High-throughput transformation pipeline for a Brazilian japonica rice with bar gene selection. Protoplasma 252(4):1071-83 PMID 25488347
Imai S et al (2012) Conversion of Bialaphos to other oligopeptides containing phosphinothricin by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. J. Antibiotics 44 (9):1006-1012
Sobrero P et al (2012) Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Hfq-regulon in Sinorhizobium meliloti. PLoS One 7(10):e48494 PMID 23119037